Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Parental perceptions surrounding polio and self-reported non-participation in polio supplementary immunization activities in Karachi, Pakistan: a mixed methods study

Asif Raza Khowaja, Sher Ali Khan, Naveeda Nizam, Saad Bin Omer & Anita Zaidi

Volume 90, Number 11, November 2012, 822-830

Table 2. Parental knowledge and perceptions surrounding polio and polio vaccination and self-reported participation in polio supplementary immunization activities conducted in September and October 2011, by ethnicity and income group, Karachi, Pakistan

Variable No. (%) of parents
Low-income Pashtuns (n = 441) Low-income non-Pashtuns (n = 423) Middle- or high-incomea (n = 153) Total (n = 1017)
Have you ever heard of a disease called polio?
Yes 86 (19.5) 324 (76.6) 153 (100) 563 (55.4)
No 326 (74) 86 (20.3) 0 (0) 412 (40.5)
Don’t know 29 (6.5) 13 (3.1) 0 (0) 42 (4.1)
What is the risk of getting polio in Pakistan compared with other countries?b
Same as in other countries 18 (20.9) 53 (16.4) 49 (32) 120 (21.4)
Higher 44 (51.2) 113 (34.9) 101 (66) 258 (45.8)
Lower 3 (3.5) 16 (4.9) 3 (2) 22 (3.9)
None 0 (0) 2 (0.6) 0 (0) 2 (0.4)
Don’t know 21 (24.4) 140 (43.2) 0 (0) 161 (28.5)
In your opinion, what does polio do to a child?b
Paralysis 86 (100) 309 (95.4) 152 (99.3) 547 (97.2)
Other symptoms 0 (0) 14 (4.3) 0 (0) 14 (2.4)
Could not name any symptoms 0 (0) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.4)
Have you heard about polio vaccine campaignsc in your area this year?
Yes 248 (56.2) 373 (88.2) 147 (96.1) 768 (75.5)
No 193 (43.8) 47 (11.1) 6 (3.9) 246 (24.2)
Don’t know 0 (0) 3 (0.7) 0 (0) 3 (0.3)
Participation in two most recent polio vaccine campaigns?
No dose in September and October 2011 59 (13.4) 9 (2.1) 89 (58) 157 (15.4)
Either September or October 2011 44 (10) 86 (20.3) 2 (1.4) 132 (13)
Both September and October 2011 338 (76.6) 328 (77.5) 62 (40.5) 728 (71.6)
What is your opinion about the polio vaccine campaign held every month?
Very much needed 124 (28.1) 353 (83.5) 97 (63.4) 574 (56.4)
Any other 3 (0.7) 0 (0) 1 (0.7) 4 (0.4)
Don’t know 314 (71.2) 70 (16.5) 55 (35.9) 439 (43.2)

a All ethnicities.

b Addressed only to parents who had heard about polio (n = 563).

c Supplementary immunization activities are better known as polio vaccine campaigns.