Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Episiotomy rate in Vietnamese-born women in Australia: support for a change in obstetric practice in Viet Nam

Anh T Trinh, Amina Khambalia, Amanda Ampt, Jonathan M Morris & Christine L Roberts

Volume 91, Number 5, May 2013, 350-356

Table 1. Factors associated with episiotomy in Vietnamese-born women, New South Wales, Australia, 2001–2010

Factor No. (%) of women who had an episiotomy (n = 3646) No. (%) of women who did not have an episiotomy (n = 8562) Risk of episiotomy, aOR (95% CI)a,b
Maternal age ≥ 35 years 638 (17.5) 1721 (20.1) 1.09 (0.97–1.23)
Parity
  Primiparous 2391 (65.6) 2601 (30.4) 3.36 (3.06–3.69)
  Multiparous 1255 (34.4) 5961 (69.6) 1.00 (NA)c
Rural residence 71 (2.0) 233 (2.7) 0.60 (0.45–0.82)
Type of health care
  Public 2568 (70.4) 7344 (85.8) 1.00 (NA)c
  Private 1078 (29.6) 1218 (14.2) 2.07 (1.85–2.32)
Diabetesd 447 (12.3) 1040 (12.2) 1.02 (0.89–1.17)
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancye 125 (3.4) 188 (2.2) 1.04 (0.77–1.36)
Smoker during pregnancy 76 (2.1) 240 (2.8) 0.63 (0.47–0.85)
Induction (versus spontaneous labour) 751 (20.6) 1129 (13.2) 1.26 (1.12–1.42)
Antenatal visit by week 12 of gestation 1741 (48.5) 3562 (42.1) 1.03 (0.94–1.13)
Epidural analgesia 557 (15.3) 529 (6.2) 0.85 (0.73–1.00)
Mode of delivery
  Forceps 350 (9.6) 82 (1.0) 8.27 (6.36–10.77)
  Vacuum-assisted 914 (25.1) 478 (5.6) 3.87 (3.40–4.41)
  Spontaneous vaginal birth 2382 (65.3) 8002 (93.5) 1.00 (NA)c
Birth weight ≥ 3800 g 303 (8.3) 711 (8.3) 1.12 (0.95–1.31)
Apgar score at 1 min < 4 56 (1.5) 104 (1.2) 0.96 (0.66–1.41)

aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; NA, not applicable.

a All factors listed in the table were taken into account for the calculation of the aOR.

b The reference group comprises women without the relevant characteristic, unless otherwise stated.

c Reference group.

d Diabetes includes pre-existing and gestational diabetes.

e Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy include chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.