Cardiovascular disease

Prevention of recurrent heart attacks and strokes in low and middle income populations

Evidence-based recommendations for policy makers and health professionals.


This publication summarizes the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD). A commentary on the evidence for cardiovascular prevention in peripheral vascular disease and diabetes is also included.

Each review of evidence is followed by a short summary of clinical recommendations for secondary prevention. A review of other considerations influencing policy-makers in the implementation of secondary prevention strategies, including health economics, follows. Finally, the book identifies areas in which research is needed to improve secondary prevention of CVD in low- and middle-income populations.

This publication is intended for practicing physicians responsible for the care of patients with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) - specifically CHD and CeVD - in low- and middle-income populations and countries. The aim is to provide general guidance about the effectiveness - or lack of effectiveness - of specific interventions, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological.

In addition, the information will help a wide range of health professionals concerned with individual and community care, and will provide guidance to health policy-makers about the broader issues pertaining to implementation of interventions in low- and middle-income populations.

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Last update:

25 November 2013 12:45 CET