Voluntary health insurance
Voluntary health insurance (VHI) schemes exist in many countries. In higher-income countries VHI tends to provide cover for health services, payment, or facilities not included or fully included in publicly-funded benefits. In lower-income countries where publicly-funded health systems tend to be weaker, VHI is also found in the form of community-based health insurance.
VHI expenditure plays a marginal role in most health systems, contributing less than 5% of total health spending in three quarters of all countries. No country has achieved progress towards UHC by mainly relying on VHI.