Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

IPV Implementation

Successful IPV introduction relies on effective planning with measurable outcomes and processes. Key components of planning include vaccine procurement and supply, cold chain and logistics, health worker training, communications, and social mobilization.

Vaccine management, cold chain and logistics

Vaccine management encompasses activities related to vaccine handling at the country level from the moment they arrive until the moment they are used. It includes ensuring sufficient storage volume; appropriate temperature monitoring; maintaining standards of buildings, equipment and vehicles; and vaccine delivery systems.

WHO guidance on supply chain strengthening


Well-planned, adequately funded communications affect the success of immunization services and are particularly needed to achieve vaccination coverage goals and maintain trust in vaccines. A communications plan and its activities – such as media briefings, stakeholder engagement, and social mobilization – should all be guided by research findings, carefully planned, and systematically implemented, ideally integrated within the overall immunization programme plan or vaccine introduction plan.

Communications planning guide

To support the addition of IPV to a national immunization programme, this Communications Planning Guide offers a range of checklists, tools, templates, examples and best practices, to support the effective planning and implementation of communication activities associated with IPV and related efforts to strengthen routine services. The contents should be adapted to local contexts as applicable.

Media kit

To support countries and regions in preparing the various media activities related to IPV introduction, a media kit has been developed as a reference resource. The kit contains guidance on how to write a press release and organize a press conference, as well as sample key messages and frequently asked questions that may be used for spokesperson trainings. The contents can be adapted to the local context as applicable.

Issues management guide

Countries are encouraged to prepare in advance for any unexpected situations that may arise around the introduction of IPV and future withdrawal of OPV (as for the addition of any vaccine to routine immunization programmes). This issues management guide can be used to help identify an unexpected event, evaluate its potential impact, and develop an appropriate communications strategy to minimize potential consequences. Similar to the media kit, this guide may be adapted per region or country as needed.

A guide for documenting the introduction of IPV

With the introduction of IPV into routine immunization programmes, there are often lessons to be learned and a story worth telling about the challenges, solutions and human dimensions. These are important to document, whether for future benefit nationally, or for sharing with wider regional or global audiences. To support the development of such documentation, this guide offers step-by-step tips, sample interview questions, and examples for handy reference.

Application of the WHO Multi-Dose Vial Policy for IPV

In November 2014, the multi-dose vials of IPV produced by Sanofi Pasteur and Bilthoven Biologicals were approved for use for up to 28 days after opening.

The approval decision was based on new preservative efficacy data from studies conducted by Bilthoven Biologicals and Sanofi Pasteur on their IPV vaccines presented in 5 and 10 dose-vials. The data showed that both multi-dose vaccine presentations may be used up to 28 days after opening, provided that the product is appropriately handled and stored.

More information on the application of the multi-dose vial policy (MDVP) for IPV and the programmatic implications is available on the following document:

To support the training of health workers on vaccine handling practices corresponding to the VVM placement, the following adaptable job aids have been developed:


The following materials are available to support the training of front-line health workers in skills needed to administer IPV and communicate with caregivers and communities about polio and IPV. Materials include resources for training sessions, guides for facilitators, key messages and frequently asked questions.

Note: There are two versions of module 4. Based on your country’s policy on the MDVP, please select the appropriate module.

Module 1 – Introduction to polio and IPV

Module 2 – IPV attributes and storage

Module 3 – IPV eligibility

Module 4A – IPV administration: for vials with VVM on cap

Module 4B – IPV administration: for vials with VVM on label

Module 5 – Recording and monitoring uptake of IPV

Module 6 – IPV AEFI monitoring

Module 7 – Communicating about IPV with caregivers

Module 8 - Multiple injections and IPV

Job aid for health workers on administration of IPV: adaptable per country

Training review exercises

IPV key messages and frequently asked questions

UNICEF training curriculum on increasing interpersonal communication skills for IPV

Fractional Dose IPV (fIPV)

Training modules for introduction of IPV in fractional dose

Job aid for health workers on administration of fIPV: adaptable per country

Related links