Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals


Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease which infects domestic and wild animals. It is transmitted to other animals and humans through close contact with saliva from infected animals (i.e. bites, scratches, licks on broken skin and mucous membranes). Once symptoms of the disease develop, rabies is fatal to both animals and humans.

Approximately 59 000 people die from rabies each year. The vast majority of these deaths occur in Asia and Africa. Children are at particular risk.

Two types of vaccines to protect against rabies in humans exist - nerve tissue and cell culture vaccines. WHO recommends replacement of nerve tissue vaccines with the more efficacious, safer vaccines developed through cell culture as soon as possible. Cell culture vaccines which are more affordable and require less vaccine have been developed in recent years.

Intradermal immunization using cell-culture-based rabies vaccines is an acceptable alternative to standard intramuscular administration. Intradermal vaccination has been shown to be as safe and immunogenic as intramuscular vaccination, yet requires less vaccine, for both pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, leading to lower direct costs. This alternative should thus be considered in settings constrained by cost and/or supply issues.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis is recommended for anyone at continual, frequent or increased risk of exposure to rabies virus, either by nature of their residence or occupation.

Periodic booster injections are recommended as an extra precaution only for people whose occupation puts them at continual or frequent risk of exposure. If available, antibody monitoring of personnel at risk is preferred to the administration of routine boosters.

Recommendations for post-exposure depend on the type of contact with the suspected rabid animal. For category I exposure (touching or feeding animals, licks on intact skin), no prophylaxis is required; for category II (nibbling of uncovered skin, minor scratches or abrasions without bleeding), immediate vaccination; and for category III (single or multiple transdermal bites or scratches, contamination of mucous membrane with saliva from licks, licks on broken skin, exposures to bats), immediate vaccination and administration of rabies immunoglobulin are recommended.

WHO position paper

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Last updated: 28 July 2018