Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals


A world safe from vaccine preventable diseases requires well-functioning human resources within a supportive environment. The goal is for all countries to have a workforce able to implement all functions of the Expanded Programme for Immunization (EPI).

The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) describes building capacity of managers and front line health workers as a recommended action to support strong systems. Immunization programmes in ministries of health throughout the world have initiated workforce development initiatives among their GVAP activities. However, many countries struggled in the past due to lack of proper guidelines to help them address workforce planning, management and evaluation.

The goal of this site is to provide resources that will support staffing, development and long term planning of the EPI workforce. These resources can apply to countries with immunization as a separate programme as well as those who take an integrated approach to health service management and delivery. They are also equally useful whether a country’s immunization program management is centralized or decentralized.

Standard Competencies Framework for the Immunization Workforce

The use of competencies helps countries better distribute resources as per required functions and more adequately define roles and responsibilities of their health workforce. This framework is intended to support the assessment, design, development and evaluation of workforce.

The work was presented at the April 2017 meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE). SAGE agreed with the proposal for publishing the standard competencies as normative guidance for countries’ immunization programmes. In October 2017, WHO and CDC convened a consultative group of immunization experts to review the immunization competencies and provide input into the normative guidance.

To learn about the project and how standardized competencies can support workforce development activities, read the article published in Vaccine, February 2019

Global Training Resources

This is a link to training materials and tools for routine Immunization strengthening and new vaccines. Countries can use and adapt the materials based on their specific training needs. Immunization in Practice (IIP) and Mid-level management (MLM) training modules and training on New vaccines (Rotavirus, Typhoid etc.) can be found on this website.

Additional pages