Malaria elimination is the interruption of indigenous transmission of a specified malaria parasite species in a defined geographic area. Certification of malaria elimination in a country requires that indigenous transmission is interrupted for all human malaria species. Continued measures are required to prevent the re-establishment of transmission. Countries are situated at different points along the road to elimination. The rate of progress will depend on the strength of the national health system, the level of investment in malaria control and a number of other factors, including biological determinants; the environment; and the social, demographic, political and economic realities of a particular country.