Tuberculosis (TB)

TB and HIV, and other comorbidities

A woman stands in front of a house, Lesotho.

People living with HIV are 15-22 times more likely to develop TB than persons without. TB is the most common presenting illness among people living with HIV, including among those taking antiretroviral treatment, and it is the major cause of HIV-related deaths. Sub-Saharan Africa bears the brunt of the dual epidemic, accounting for approximately 84% of all deaths from HIV-associated TB in 2018. To address HIV-related TB WHO recommends a 12 point package of collaborative TB/HIV activities. These aim to create collaboration between TB and HIV programmes, reduce the burden of TB among people living with HIV and the burden of HIV among TB patients.

fact buffet

Lives saved

7.3 millionthrough scale-up of collaborative TB/HIV activities since 2005

Read 10 facts on TB-HIV

HIV-positive TB cases

862 000people living with HIV estimated to have fallen ill with TB in 2018.

Read the Global Tuberculosis Report


251 000people living with HIV estimated to have died from TB, a preventable and curable disease.

Read the 2019 TB/HIV fact sheet
pdf, 985kb

Key topics

Advocacy events

Despite being the major cause of HIV-related mortality, TB requires much more attention within the HIV response. Concerted efforts are needed by all parties to end deaths among people living with HIV from this preventable and curable disease. Advocacy plays a crucial role in mainstreaming TB onto the HIV agenda and vice versa, and for disseminating the latest evidence and policy

TB/HIV research

Despite progress in uptake and scale-up of collaborative TB/HIV activities which have had considerable impact, there is still an urgent need for research and development of new tools and regimens, as well as improved and quality delivery of integrated services. WHO has been organizing TB/HIV research frontier meetings in collaboration with partners since 2007. These data-driven meetings have served as a platform for networking to discuss novel ideas, controversies and have played a crucial role in catalysing policies and programmes.


As part of WHO’s role in supporting countries to better respond to HIV-associated tuberculosis, global and regional meetings and workshops have been held to foster enhanced collaboration between national TB and AIDS control programmes and other stakeholders, to share experiences and best practices in implementation, and to generate of evidence based policy and programme guidance.

People who use drugs

People who use drugs are at increased risk of TB, regardless of HIV status, with rates documented in the pre-AIDS era of over 10 times higher than among the general population. HIV further increases the risk of TB, and TB is a leading AIDS-defining illness and cause of mortality among people living with HIV who inject drugs. The convergence of viral hepatitis, HIV, TB and injecting drug use has become a major health concern and can have important implications for case management.

Other TB Comorbidities

In addition to HIV, there are several other medical conditions that are risk factors for TB and for poor TB treatment results, while TB can complicate the disease course of some diseases. It is therefore important to identify these comorbidities in people diagnosed with TB in order to ensure early diagnosis and improve co-management. When these conditions are highly prevalent in the general population they can be important contributors to the TB burden. Consequently, reducing the prevalence of these conditions can help prevent TB.

News, events and meetings

  • December 2019

    Synergising Action to Address the Burden of Tuberculosis and NCDs in Vulnerable Populations

    A panel discussion entitled Synergising Action to Address the Burden of Tuberculosis and NCDs in Vulnerable Populations was organized by the Global TB Programme at the WHO Global Meeting to Accelerate Progress on SDG target 3.4 on NCDs and Mental Health in Oman, 9-12 October. During the session representatives from Mexico, Oman, the Russian Federation and the United Republic of Tanzania described their experiences, challenges and enablers for ensuring integrated care for TB, NCDs and mental health. For more information please visit the link below.

  • July 2019

    IAS 2019

    WHO and Treatment Action Group convened a satellite event at the 10th International AIDS Society Conference (IAS 2019) entitled Urine LAM tests: A golden opportunity to end TB deaths among people with advanced HIV, in Mexico on 22nd July 2019. The session shared the latest evidence on diagnostic tests, provided a broad overview of the update to the WHO guidelines for the use of the lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) assay, reviewed the reasons behind poor policy uptake by countries and shared best practice and advocacy efforts by civil society to promote urine LF-LAM uptake. For more information please see the links below.

  • March 2019

    CROI 2019-Affiliated HIV/TB Research Frontiers Meeting

    WHO convened a meeting in conjunction with CROI 2019, entitled "New approaches to TB prevention in people living with HIV: From long-acting injectables to the perfect vaccine" on Monday 4th March 2019 in Seattle, USA. The meeting was chaired by Richard Chaisson of Johns Hopkins Medicine and Diane Havlir of the University of California, San Francisco. Participants reviewed the longer-term prospects for TB prevention among people living with HIV and discussed opportunities, challenges and research implications for developing a durable and acceptable method of TB prevention. For more details including the report with links to the presentations, please visit the links below.

  • September 2018

    TB/HIV Side Event at the UN General Assembly High-Level Meeting on Ending TB

    On the morning of the historic UN General Assembly High-Level Meeting on Ending TB on 26 September 2018, WHO in collaboration with partners, convened a breakfast event to catalyze the scale-up of integrated, community-based care for TB and HIV to reach the SDG targets of ending TB and AIDS by 2030. For more details on the event and on outcomes from the UN High-Level meeting relevant to the response to HIV-associated TB, please visit the links below:

  • July 2018

    TB at the 22nd International AIDS Society Conference, 2018

    In collaboration with CDC, WHO convened a consultation "TB preventive preventive treatment among people living with HIV: Time for Action!" on 24th July 2018 in conjunction with AIDS 2018. The consultation reviewed global progress in implementation and scale-up of TB preventive treatment efforts, shared country experiences, identified key barriers and discussed opportunities to support increased implementation and scale-up. For more information on the consultation and for the roadmap of sessions focusing on HIV-associated TB with links to presentations and videos, please visit the links below:

  • March 2018

    CROI 2018-Affiliated HIV/TB Research Frontiers Meeting

    WHO organised an HIV/TB Research Frontiers meeting entitled "Short-Course Rifamycin Regimens and Dolutegravir: Silver Bullets?", in conjunction with the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2018) on March 4, 2018. The meeting was chaired by Richard Chaisson of Johns Hopkins Medicine, and Constance Benson of the University of California, San Diego. The main aim of the meeting was to stimulate high level scientific debate around the opportunities, challenges, and scientific research implications posed by the latest short-course rifamycin-based TB preventive regimens in the context of the latest generation of antiretroviral drugs such as Dolutegravir. For more details on this meeting and on coverage of HIV-associated TB at the conference itself, please visit the links below.

  • July 2017

    IAS 2017 and Consultation on WHO Ministerial Conference on ending TB in a Sustainable Development Era

    In preparation for the first WHO Ministerial Conference on Ending TB in the Sustainable Development Era to be held in Moscow in November 2017, WHO convened a consultation on 25th July 2017 at the 9th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2017) in Paris, France, on actions needed to galvanize political momentum and eliminate TB deaths among people living with HIV. Click on the links below for further details on the meeting and on TB at IAS 2017.

  • September 2016

    Regional consultation meeting to support country implementation of the top 10 indicators to monitor the End TB Strategy, programmatic management of latent TB infection and collaborative TB/HIV activities

    The WHO Global TB Programme and the department of HIV/AIDS and Global Hepatitis programme and the Global Fund Secretariat jointly organized a consultative meeting to support country implementation of the top 10 indicators to monitor the End TB Strategy, collaborative TB/HIV activities and programmatic management of latent TB infection, on 20-22 September 2016 at Nairobi, Kenya.

  • July 2016

    TB 2016 Conference

    In recognition of the need for greater attention to TB, the International AIDS Society hosted TB2016 – a two-day global conference dedicated to TB, immediately prior to AIDS 2016 in Durban, South Africa. The conference brought together scientists, researchers, policy makers and advocates, to galvanize political leadership and commitment to end TB by 2030, as set out in the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

  • July 2016

    AIDS 2016 Conference

    The International AIDS Society conference, AIDS 2016, held in Durban, South Africa from 18 to 22 July was attended by more than 18,000 delegates to discuss the global HIV response. In addition to the pre-conference, dedicated to TB, the main HIV conference included numerous sessions on HIV-associated TB, including a WHO-organized workshop to expedite the diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated TB among people living with HIV.

  • June 2016

    UN General Assembly 2016

    A WHO-organized Ministerial Panel discussion was convened prior to the opening plenary of the UN High-Level Meeting on ending AIDS on 8 June 2016. The panel discussion was convened by the UN Special Envoy on TB, Eric Goosby and opened by WHO’s Assistant Director General on HIV, TB, Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases, Ren Minghui, and Chair of the Board of the Stop TB Partnership and Minister of Health of South Africa, Aaron Motsoaledi.

  • May 2016

    TB, HIV and Malaria at the Women Deliver conference

    A symposium on the “Female Face of Communicable Diseases” was organized by WHO in collaboration with partners, at the Women Deliver Global Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark on 18th May 2016. The session aimed to raise the importance of TB, and other communicable diseases in women’s health and discussed the need for a holistic and integrated healthcare delivery model, from policy to care recipient level.

  • March 2016

    Consolidated guidelines for people who inject drugs

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased risk of TB, irrespective of HIV status, and TB is a leading cause of HIV-related mortality among PWID. PWID are also disproportionately affected by HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C. These guidelines, released in March 2016, consolidate the latest WHO recommendations relating to the management of TB, HIV-associated TB, HIV, viral hepatitis B and C, drug dependence, as well as of alcohol dependence, malnutrition, mental illness and psycho-social needs.


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