Water sanitation hygiene

Monitoring and evidence

A child drinks from a water tap - Myanmar
WHO/SEARO/Shehzad Noorani

The evidence as a result of monitoring the inputs and outputs provided by the UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS), TrackFin and WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) helps to guide decision-makers at the local, national and global levels. The information provided by JMP, GLAAS and TrackFin is also a key component of measuring the success of the Sustainable Development Goals.


Water and sanitation monitoring and evidence facts

  • 115 countries and territories and 29 external support agencies participated in the GLAAS 2018/2019 cycle.
  • 20 countries and territories reported a funding gap of 61% between identified needs and available funding to reach national WASH targets (GLAAS 2019).
  • While many countries estimated the cost of implementing their national WASH plans, less than 15% of countries reported having sufficient financial resources to implement these plans (GLAAS 2019).
  • Approximately half of GLAAS participant countries have set drinking-water targets that aim for universal coverage at levels higher than basic services by 2030 (GLAAS 2019).


Further information

Investments and the enabling environment

To improve access to safe water and sanitation, it is necessary to understand what actions countries and external support agencies are undertaking in the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector.

Economic benefits of investing in water and sanitation

Economic benefits of investing in water and sanitation are considerable: they include an overall estimated gain of 1.5% of global GDP and a US$ 4.3 return for every dollar invested in water and sanitation services, due to reduced health care costs for individuals and society, and greater productivity and involvement in the workplace through better access to facilities.

Water supply, sanitation and hygiene monitoring

The overall aim of the JMP is to report globally on the status of water supply and sanitation sector, and to support countries in improving their monitoring performance to enable better planning and management at the country level.

Wastewater treatment and use monitoring

WHO and UN-HABITAT monitor treatment and safe use of wastewater under Sustainable Development Goal 6.3. Domestic wastewater is monitored in coordination with the JMP and monitoring of indicator 6.2.1 on safely managed sanitation